This study underscores the need to consider gender identify and sexual orientation at end-of-life. In particular, recognition of intersectionality and social locations is crucial to facilitating positive aging experiences and end-of-life care. 10 pages. Last reviewed March 2019.

The authors conducted a systematic review to determine the effect of structured communication tools for end-of-life decision making in contrast to usual care. 19 pages. Last reviewed March 2019.

This article discusses the results of an interactive workshop conducted with experienced critical care nurses using different communication tools. 7 pages. Last reviewed March 2019.

This handout developed for health care professionals  outlines effective conversation flow and samples of patient-tested language. 1 page. Last reviewed March 2019.

This article provides an overview of differing definitions and legislation used related to advance care planning and goals of care across Canada.  The authors aim to provide ideas on facilitating discussions and highlight opportunities to start these conversations with patients and substitute decision makers. 9 pages. Last reviewed March 2019.

This American handbook was developed to help teach effective communication techniques to support building relationships with older adults. 70 pages. Last reviewed March 2019.

In this article, the authors reviewed what was known about the skills and strategies necessary for meaningful and effective end of life conversations and the role of interdisciplinary approaches to these conversations. 8 pages. Last reviewed March 2019.

This American website provides a number of video examples for health care providers on how they can manage a variety of difficult conversations with patients and families. Last reviewed March 2019.

This paper reviews the literature about the importance of communication in deliverying bad news, the status of communication training, communication strategies and psychosocial interventions. 5 pages. Last reviewed March 2019.

On April 1st, 2019,  Dr. Chris Frank provided this in-person/webinar presentation as he discussed communication strategies for having difficult conversations such as advance care planning, goals of care and end of life.  Learning objectives included understanding the difference between Advance Care Planning (ACP), goals of care and consent; how to incorporate ACP and goals of care discussions into regular outpatient care; using the principles to make CPR discussions easier for patients and you and incorporate Harvard Serious Illness Communication guide and other resources into your discussions. Watch the recording here.  Additional resources can be accessed by clicking read more.

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